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AMAVU N’AMAVUKO Y’UBWITEGANYIRIZE BW’ABAKOZI MU RWANDA

BWADUTSE RYARI, BWAGEZE BUTE IWACU MU RWANDA,

BUGEZE HE, BURAGANA HE ?

(Igice cya kabiri)

Guteganyiriza abakozi byadutse bite mu Rwanda ?

Mu gice cyambere twibukiranyije byinshi byerekeye amavu n’amavuko

y’ubwiteganyirize bw’abakozi ku isi muri rusange:

Muri iki gice cya kabiri turarebera hamwe amavu n’amavuko

y’ubwiteganyirize bw’abakozi mu gihugu cyacu. Guteganyiriza abakozi

byadutse bite mu Rwanda ?

Nk’uko tubisanga mu isi yose, guteganyiriza iminsi mibi birasanzwe mu

Rwanda. Ugufashanya kw’imiryango mu byago ni karande iwacu mu

Rwanda ndetse no muri Afurika yoseTuzi neza ko hambere mu Rwanda,

umurwayi yitabwagaho n’abe n’abaturanyi, umusaza agasindagizwa

n’abana be,umubyeyi agakamirwa n’abaturanyi, ufite ubumuga

akamenywa n’umuryango, imfubyi ikarerwa mu bya se, kandi ikitwa

imfubyi y’umuryango wose. Uwakabya, yavuga ko ibyo bintu byacitse,

ariko uwashyira mu gaciro yavuga ko bigenda bikendera ndetse

akanahamya ko mu myaka iri imbere tuzaba twabaye nk’abanyaburayi,

mu gihe cy’ivuka ry’imijyi n’ishingwa ry’inganda, niba tudakomeye ku

muco wacu.

Dukurikije umuco wacu rero, dusanga ubwiteganyirize

bw’umunyarwanda wo hambere bwari bushyingiye ahanini ku

muryango,ibyo bikaba kimwe mu bisobanura impamvu, umunyarwanda

yifuzaga kubyara abana benshi.

Umuco nyarwanda wo gufashanya mu rwego rw’umuryango ni mwiza

kandi tugomba kwihatira kumukomeraho, tuwutoza urubyaro rwacu.

Ariko kandi twibuke ko n’ikibazo cy’urubyaro rwinshi, ari kimwe mu

biteye impungenge igihugu cyacu, bikaba ari nayo mpamvu abayobozi

b’ igihugu cyacu badusaba kubyara abo dushoboye kurera.

Kubera rero imibereho yacu igenda ihinduka, guteganyiriza iminsi mibi

kwacu, ntigushobora gukomeza gushingira ku gufashanya kw’imiryango

gusa. Byabaye ngombwa rero ko twinjiza mu muco wacu ibyiza dusanga

ahandi.

Ubwiteganyirize bw’abakozi twabuzaniwe n’abanyamahanga bitewe

ahanini n’ubukolonize. Abanyaburayi bamaze kwigabanya Afurika mu

buryo bwa gikolonize, badusanganye imico yacu ishingiye

k’ukwiteganyiriza gushingiye kumiryango. Batuzanamo umuco wo

gutungwa n’ifaranga biturutse ku murimo uyu n’uyu, cyangwa ku

bucuruzi ubu n’ubu.

Ukuza kw’abazungu kwadukanye imijyi n’inganda hirya no hino muri

Afurika. Kwadukana n’ubucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, ubwubatsi

bw’imihanda n’amazu y’ubwoko bwose , imirimo yo mu biro ,

ibinyabiziga bigendera mu mihanda,n’ibindi.Mbese umuntu yavuga ko

ibyinshi abazungu bazanye , byaje bihindura imibereho yacu imwe

n’imwe.

Bashingiye ku byari bitangiye kugerwaho iwabo, abazungu basanze ari

ngombwa kwinjiza ubwiteganyrize bw’abakozi mu bihugu by’afurika.

Nubwo amashami yose atagiye atangirira rimwe mu bihugu byose,

usanga ubu intambwe yatewe arindende muri afurika, bitewe ahanini

n’inkunga ibiro mpuzamahanga byita ku murimo byagiye bitera ibihugu

byacu cyane nyuma y’ubwigenge.

Mu mwaka wa 1923, ubutegetsi bwa gikolonize niho bwagize igitekerezo

cyo kugoboka abapfakazi n’impfubyi basizwe n’abakozi ba leta ya

gikolonize, ari abasilikare ari n’abakozi bo mu nzego z’ubucamanza.

Mu mwaka w’ 1927, niho hashizweho itegeko ryerekeye pansiyo

y’abakozi bakoreraga Leta ya gikolonize muri Afurika ( bitwaga agents

auxilliares de l’Administration d’Afrique).

Mu mwaka w’ 1930, hashizweho itegeko ryerekeye pansiyo y’abasilikari

b’abirabura.Nyuma yaho mu mwaka w’ 1935 hashyirwaho itegeko

ryerekeye pansiyo y’abakozi kavukire ba “Rwanda-Urundi”, n’iryerekeye

pansiyo y’abapolisi b’icyo gihe. Pansiyo yatangwaga hakurikijwe ayo

mategeko tumaze kuvuga, yatangwaga na leta ya gikolonize,

ntamusanzu watangwaga n’umukozi.

Nk’uko tubibona rero,guteganyiriza izabukuru byari byihariwe n’abakozi

bagengwa na sitati z’icyo gihe, kandi bikishingirwa na leta

yabakoreshaga,bikaba bituma tuvuga ko ubwiteganyirize bw,abakozi

butari bwuzuye, kubera ko bwarebaga abakozi ba leta ya gikolonize

gusa,kandi bushingiye kw’ishami rimwe gusa ,rya pansiyo.

Mu mwaka w’ 1946,iteka ry’umwami w’ Ububiligi ryashyizeho isanduku

ya gikolonize yo kugoboka abarwayi,abafite ubumuga n’abagize

impanuka zikomotse ku kazi.Iyo sanduku yatangiye igoboka

abanyamahanga bakoraga muri Kongo-mbiligi na Rwanda-Urundi,nyuma

y’italiki ya 1 Kanama 1949,hashyirwaho iteka ryerekeye igoboka

ry’abakozi kavukire bagize ibyago bikomoka ku kazi.

Isanduku ya gikolonize yagobokaga abagize ibyago bikomoka ku

kazi,yakoreshaga amafaranga yatangwaga n’abakoresha

gusa,yabarwaga hakurikijwe umubare w’amafaranga bahembaga

abakozi babo.Uretse iyo sanduku, itegeko ryemereraga abakoresha

kwishyira hamwe bagashinga amasanduku yihariye yo kugoboka abakozi

babo,ariko ayo masanduku akagenzurwa n’ubutegetsi.

Iteka ryo ku wa 1 Kanama 1949 ryateganyaga ko umukozi ugize ibyago

bikomoka ku kazi avurwa ku buntu, agahabwa ibimutunga mugihe

arwaye n’amafaranga ku abafite ubumuga mugihe barembejwe n’ibyo

byago.

Iyo umukozi yabaga yitabye Imana,abo asize bahabwaga

ibibatunga.Isanduku ya gikolonize ishinzwe abagize abyago bikomoka ku

kazi yagobokaga abakozi bateye kontaro.;naho abagengwa na sitati

bakagobokwa na leta hakurikijwe amategeko yihariye.

Intambwe ndende yatewe cyane mu bwiteganyirize bw’abakozi igihe

hashyizweho iteka ryo ku wa 6 Kamena 1956 ryatangiye gukurikizwa ku

wa 1 Mutarama 1957 ryerekeye pansiyo y’abakozi kavukire ba Kongo-

mbiligi na Rwanda-Urundi.

Iryo teka naryo ryarebaga gusa abakozi bari bafite “Kontaro”

y’umurimo,kuko abakozi ba leta bishingirwaga na leta ya gikolonize

nk’uko twari tumaze kubivuga.

Isanduku yari igenewe gutanga pansiyo yashyizweho n’iryo teka

,yakiraga imisanzu y’abakozi n’abakoresha,uretse ko mw’itangira ryayo

hari hateganyijwe ko leta mbiligi izayiha amafaranga yo gutangiza.

Iyo sanduku yari ishyiriweho kugoboka abakozi bageze mu zabukuru

hamwe n’imiryango yabo mugihe bitabye Imana.

N’ubwo iteka ryo mu mwaka w’1956 ritamaze igihe

rikurikizwa,ntawabura guhamya ko ryabaye intambwe-shingiro

y’ubwiteganyirize mu Rwanda.

Mu mwaka w’1962,ubwiteganyirize bw’abakozi bwabaye kimwe mu bya

mbere abayobozi b’u Rwanda bashyize mu byihutirwa.Nibwo

hashyizweho itegeko ryo ku wa 15 Ugushyingo 1962 rigenga

ubwiteganyirize bw’abakozi. Byari binakwiye kandi ko abakozi bari

baratangiye guteganyirizwa mu rwego rw’ibyago bikomoka ku kazi mu

mwaka w’ 1949 no mu rwego rwa pansiyo mu mwaka w’1957 bakomeza

kwitabwaho.

Iryo tegeko ryo kw’italiki ya 15 Ugushyingo 1962 ninaryo ryashinze

Isanduku y’Ubwiteganyirize bw’Abakozi y’u Rwanda bari bakunze kwita

Caisse Sociale du Rwanda.

Tubonye rero ko ku ngoma ya gikolonize hariho amashami abiri

ateganyirizwa:Ishami ry’ibyago bikomoka ku kazi n’ Ishami irya

pansiyo.Ayo mashami yombi akaba yari yarashinzwe ibigo bibiri

bitandukanye, aribyo:Isanduku ya gikolonize yokugoboka abagize

ibyago bikomoka ku kazi yatangiye muw’1949 ku byerekeye abakozi

kavukire bo mu bihugu byari byarakolonijwe nu Bubiligi,n’Isanduku ya

pansiyo y’abakozi ba Kongo-mbiligi na Rwanda-Urundi.

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